NEW DELHI: Using ATMs to withdraw money or for other purposes like balance enquiry beyond five times in a month will attract a levy of Rs 20 per transaction from Saturday.
As per the Reserve Bank’s new guidelines that comes into force from Saturday, bank customers in six metros — Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore — are allowed to withdraw money and/or carry out non-financial transactions like mini-statements at ATMs of banks, where they hold saving/current accounts, free of charge only five times a month.
Every transaction beyond this threshold will be charged Rs 20 per use.
Besides, the number of free transactions at ATMs (Automated Teller Machines) of non-home banks has been cut to three times a month from five times.
“Taking into account the high density of ATMs, bank branches and alternate modes of payment available to customers, the number of mandatory free ATM transactions for savings bank account customers at other banks’ ATMs is reduced from the present 5 to 3 transactions per month (inclusive of both financial and non-financial transactions),” RBI had said in a notification issued in August this year.
The RBI, however, clarified that nothing precludes a bank from offering more than three free transactions at other bank ATMs to its account holders if it so desires.
The cap in the number of free ATM transactions will not apply on small/no-frills or basic savings bank deposit account holders who will continue to enjoy five free transactions.
At places other than the six metro centres, the facility of five free transactions for savings bank account customers will remain unchanged upon using other bank ATMs.
India has a total of 1.6 lakh bank ATMs across the country as of March 2014.
The new guidelines were issued in pursuance of a representation made to the RBI by Indian Banks’ Association on the back of growing cost of ATM deployment and maintenance incurred by banks as well as rising interchange outgo due to free transactions.
Are you aware that with Indian passport, there are over 50 countries you can travel to without visa or you would be issued visa on arrival? This means that you can simply wake up in the morning, purchase flight ticket and start off on your journey to these over 50 destinations (countries and territories) without the need to make any prior visa arrangement which happens to be one of the most stressful part of planning an international travel in most cases. Having access to these over 50 countries places the Indian passport at number 76th in the world among the list of countries with highest number of visa free or visa on arrival destinations.
It is however important to note that there is usually a time limit to how long you can stay in each country which varies significantly. Also, depending on the purpose of travel and how long you intend to stay, you could be eligible to apply for visa or an extension if you were issued one on arrival as the case may be.
Before you travel, it is necessary that you contact the embassy or consulate of the country you are planning to travel to at a time very close to when you intend to travel to confirm that there has not been any recent changes that may affect your travel. This is because visa and immigration policies change frequently as each country makes the necessary adjustments to protect its borders.
Bolivia – 90 days
Burundi – 30 days; obtainable at Bujumbura International Airport
Cambodia – 30 days
Guinea-Bissau – 90 days
Guyana – 30 days provided holding confirmation, issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs
Indonesia – 30 days
Jordan – 2 weeks, must hold US$ 3000
Kenya – 3 months
Laos – 30 days
Madagascar – 90 days
Maldives – 90 days
Palau – 30 days
Saint Lucia – 6 weeks
Samoa – 60 days
Seychelles – 1 month
Somalia 30 days, provided an invitation letter issued by the sponsor has been submitted to the Airport Immigration Department at least 2 days before arrival.
Thailand – 15 days. Visa fee of 1000 Thai Baht needs to be paid in Thai currency. Visa on Arrival has to be obtained at First point of entry/Landing not the Final Destination.
Timor-Leste – 30 days
Togo – 7 days
Tuvalu – 1 month
Somaliland – 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival
Niue – 30 days
The countries listed above issue visa on arrival however, on the next page is the list of countries and territories you can travel to without visa but only your Indian passport.
The country where you are residing wither temporarily or permanently can affect how many countries you can have access to as an Indian passport holder. Take for instance, an indian citizen who also has a green card and is living in the United States would not require visa to travel to places like Canada, Mexico, and many other countries, regions and territories in the Caribbean and Indian nationals living in Japan (with a valid Alien Registration Card) can legitimately travel to South Korea for tourism and short business trips without visa while an Indian national who has his/her indian passport stamped with a Schengen visa would have a free access to other schengen countries within the validity of the issued Schengen visa.
Nepal – Freedom of movement based on the terms of the 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship that allows Indian citizens to live and work freely in Nepal.
Dominica – 6 months
Ecuador – 90 days
Mauritius- 90 days
Micronesia – 30 days
Grenada – 3 months
Haiti – 3 months
El Salvador – 90 days
Fiji – 4 months
Saint Kitts and Nevis – 3 months
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – 1 month
Trinidad and Tobago – 90 days
Vanuatu – 30 days
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus – 3 months
Svalbard – Visa is not required for entry to Svalbard but practically its impossible to board a flight/ferry to Svalbard without oing through Norway therefore, this would invariably require a double entry Schengen visa in order to go and come back from Svalbard to mainland Norway.
Transnistria – Registration required after 24h
Hong Kong – 14 days
Palestine – Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed
British Virgin Islands
Montserrat – 6 months
Macau – 30 days
Turks and Caicos Islands – 30 days
Kish Island – No visa is required for visitors to Kish Island.
Cook Islands – 31 days
Pitcairn Islands – 14 days visa free and landing fee 35 USD or tax of 5 USD if you are not going ashore is required.
At a spending rate of $1 million a day, most people would blow through their entire life savings in less than a week. But for billionaire Bill Gates, it would take 218 years to spend his approximate $79 billion fortune at this rate, according to new research from Oxfam that was recently highlighted by The Guardian. That’s about three Ferraris a day.
It would take Mexico’s Carlos Slim, the world’s richest man, even longer at 220 years. Warren Buffett could get through his fortune slightly faster, but it would still take 169 years to clear his bank account.
While few could keep up with these hypothetical spending patterns, more people than ever can call themselves billionaires these days. In fact, the number of billionaires in the world has more than doubled since the recession, rising from 793 in March 2009 to 1,645 in March 2014, Oxfam reports.
And wealth proves to be the gift that keeps on giving — billionaires average a 5.3% return on wealth, compared to the 1.95% return rate for the ordinary person. This means Gates makes an approximate $11.5 million a day from interest.
When comparing this extreme wealth to those on the other side of the economic spectrum, however, the report found some startling inequalities. Namely, the 85 richest people in the world have a combined net worth equal to the poorest half of the entire global population.
READ ALSO: Bill Gates ranked richest American by Forbes
READ ALSO: The incredible life Of Bill Gates
But Gates and Buffett aren’t looking for ways to idly blow cash. Rather, both billionaires are known for their charitable ways. Gates runs the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which received nearly $3 billion from Buffett alone in 2014.
The deal is designed to marry IBM’s analytics software and large consulting staff with the huge volumes of information Twitter generates about users’ action and opinions.
IBM will have access to the full public stream of tweets as they are posted, as well as all tweets generated since Twitter was founded in 2006, the companies said Wednesday. The data will be shared with IBM’s roughly 10,000 consultants to help solve client problems.
Big Blue and Twitter plan to work together to develop new applications and services based on the information. The companies said they would allow third-party developers to integrate Twitter data into new cloud services they build using IBM’s tools.
The two companies also plan jointly to develop offerings for specific industries, such as banking, retail, travel, transportation and consumer products.
The deal is IBM’s second major pact this year with a big name in Silicon Valley. IBM andApple Inc. in July announced an agreement to create business apps and sell iPhones and iPads to IBM’s corporate customers.
The company recently has struggled to find new drivers for growth as revenue from its consulting and software businesses has slowed. Virginia Rometty , who became chief executive in early 2012, has identified the field known as big data as a cornerstone of her strategy. Related products include versions of the Watson data-analytics technology that became famous for winning the television game show “Jeopardy!”
Ms. Rometty said she personally negotiated with Dick Costolo, Twitter’s CEO, to forge the partnership.
“Business decision- making will never be the same,” she said in a video shown at an event in Las Vegas where the partnership was disclosed.
“Businesses have only scratched the surface of what is possible” with Twitter data, Mr. Costolo said in a companion video.
Twitter has licensed its data to other companies but this year has become more aggressive in expanding that side of the business as it looks for new revenue streams besides advertising. Twitter stepped up the effort this spring by acquiring longtime data partner Gnip to offer more sophisticated analytics packages to advertisers.
On Monday, Twitter said data licensing and revenue from its mobile-advertising exchange accounted for $41 million of its $361 million in third-quarter revenue, up from $15.1 million for the categorya year earlier.
Chris Moody, the former Gnip CEO who is vice president in charge of Twitter’s data strategy, said customers interested in using its data want it integrated with analysis tools they use—like IBM’s—and to get help from consultants to use the information.
“We have very important relationships with major brands,” Mr. Moody said. “Many of those companies have asked us to help them be better and smarter.”
Customer service and support has been one of the primary ways that businesses have used Twitter. Airlines, retailers and hotels study customer tweets to learn about service or product quality.
People also see Twitter as an early-warning system for events and catastrophes. Last month, for example, Dataminr released a product to help news organizations mine Twitter data to spot breaking news faster.
One increasingly important application, Mr. Moody said, is for product planning and development. A major computer maker, he said, uses Twitter data about public opinions to help determine how many units of a new product to build.
Public safety could be another promising area for Twitter data, Mr. Moody said. An Australian university is studying whether tweets could help residents of Jakarta, Indonesia, to respond mor effectively to frequent flooding, he said.
Mr. Moody estimated that Twitter users generate one billion tweets every two days.
The Library of Congress, by contrast, has archived 55 million items over 250 years, he said. And most of the entries in the Library of Congress reflect the views of wealthy famous men, he said. “Twitter represents the views of the planet.”
Corrections & Amplifications
An earlier version of this article misspelled Twitter CEO Dick Costolo’s name. Also Chris Moody estimates Twitter generates one billion items every two days. An earlier version of this article incorrectly said he estimates Twitter generates two billion items every two days.
Greetings for the day,
Imediate!! hirring for “SAS”
Note.. LOOKING OUT FOR ONLY IMMEDIATE JOINING (max 7 days)
The candidates should have the following…. experience
1. The Candidate must have around 3 yrs of experience in SAS especially in the DWBI area.
2. Experience in design, development and deployment of BI solutions using SASBASE, SASMACRO
3. Design, develop and execute SASBASE, SASMACRO programs 4
4. Exposure to Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis, LinearNon-Linear Regression, Time-Series, Cluster Analysis
5. Extensive experience in reading Mainframe file, text files all delimiters, excel files, access files and CSV files
6. Good Knowledge in data management and transformation of data using data Step, SAS procedures and Proc SQL
7. Sound Analytical Skills & Expsoure to Predictive Mdeling is an added advantage
8. Statistical background is plus
9. Candidate must have Excellent data analysis and co-ordination skills.
10. Must have 2-3 years total experience on Base SAS 9.3SAS EG 5.1
Send your resume immediately so we can schedule your interview. Looking for immediate joineer or max 7 day.
Any relevant reference from your side is really appreciated
Interview Mode: Telephonic or Face 2 Face.
job location – pune
Good communicator and be able to work efficiently.
Please Apply with following details:-
Reason for Change :
Date of Birth :-
Pancard no –
Passport no –
Current location –
Thanks and Regards,
Alp Consulting Ltd (firstname.lastname@example.org, No. 2, 12 th main Vasanthnagar, BANGALORE, Karnataka – 560001
This is Sijji from tCognition Inc. I found your resume on one of the leading job portals, and I find your background interesting. I would like to discuss a high profile opportunity with you.
tCognition Inc., headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, UK, Canada, and Kolhapur, Mumbai in India offers world class IT/Software, Consulting and Outsourcing Services for customers throughout the globe.
Opening For SAS Analyst
Client: Big 4
Work Location: Hyderabad
Experience Level: 2 to 4 Years
The key job responsibilities include the following:
* Under supervision, work on survey research projects fromstart to f inish.
* Collaborate w ith or assist other teammembers on survey research projects.
* Program survey questionnaire using Deloitte online survey tool and have it ready for deployment.
* Collect and dow nload survey data, performdata cleansing, conduct relevant analysis and summarize results.
* Discuss results with client and assist with interpretation.
* Prepare a summary PPT deck to present survey results in a clear and concise manner.
The Core skills required are as follows:
* Strong sense of client service: Should be committed to meeting or exceeding client expectations on quality and timeliness of w ork.
* Strong verbal communication: Should be able to talk to clients in a confident, assertive manner, clarify doubts/questions and manage expectations fromstart to f inish.
* Strong w ritten communication: Should be able to express thoughts clearly and concisely via email.
* Survey research and analysis: Good understanding of survey research and analysis methods is preferred.
* Analytic bent of mind: Should go beyond standard deliverables, performdata mining and provide insights.
* Basic statistical know ledge: Should have a good understanding of the fundamentals of statistics and how that applies to data analysis.
* Advanced statistical analysis: Practical know ledge of advanced statistical analysis like regression analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis and other multivariate techniques is preferred.
* Prof iciency w ith one or more statistical tools like SPSS, SAS, or Minitab is preferred.
* Prof iciency w ith Excel is a must.
* Prof icency with PPT and practical know ledge of graphical representation is preferred.
Professional qualification *
BE + MBA is preferred
BSC (preferably in statistics/mathematics) + MBA w ill also be considered.
Tcognition Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. (email@example.com, Kolhapur, KOLHAPUR, Maharashtra – 415101
Question 1: The following SAS DATA step is submitted:
if region = ‘NE’ then output bhilai;
if region = ‘SE’ then output allahabad;
if region = ‘SW’ then output pune;
if region = ‘NW’ then output portblair;
Which one of the following is true regarding the output data sets?
1. No library references are required
2. The data sets listed on all the IF statements require a library reference
3. The data sets listed in the last two IF statements require a library reference.
4. The data sets listed in the first two IF statements require a library reference.
Question 2: You have submitted the SAS DATA step as below:
libname temp ‘SAS-data-library’;
totalsal = price * 1.04;
Which one of the following statements is true regarding the program above?
1. The program is reading from a temporary data set and writing to a temporary data set.
2. The program is reading from a temporary data set and writing to a permanent data set.
3. The program is reading from a permanent data set and writing to a temporary data set.
4. The program is reading from a permanent data set and writing to a permanent data set.
Question: 3 The following SAS program is submitted:
infile `file specification’;
input name $ amount@@;
Which of the following is true?
1. Two @@ together are the same as one c
2. Two @@ hold the data records until the bottom of the DATA step.
3. Two @@ hold the raw data record across iterations of the DATA step.
4. Two @@ are invalid syntax and will cause the program to fail to execute.
Question :4 Which SAS statement correctly uses column input to read the values in the raw data
file below in this order: Address (4th field), SquareFeet (second field), Style (first field),
Bedrooms (third field)?
1. Input Address 15-29 SquareFeet 8-11 Style 1-6 Bedrooms 13;
2. Input $ 15-29 Address 8-11 SquareFeet $ 1-6 Style 13 Bedrooms;
3. Input Address $ 15-29 SquareFeet 8-11 Style $ 1-6 Bedrooms 13;
4. Input Address 15-29 $ SquareFeet 8-11 Style 1-6 $ Bedrooms 13;
Question :5 The following observation is stored in a SAS data set named EMPLOYEES:
LNAME FNAME JOBCODE
Whitley Sam na1
If the DATA step below is executed, what will be the value of the variable JOBDESC in the output SAS data set when this observation is processed?
if jobcode = ‘NA1’ then jobdesc = ‘Navigator’;
D. a missing value
Question :6 How are numeric and character missing values represented internally?
Question :7 Explain the concept of PDV?
Question :8 At compile time when a SAS data set is read, What items are created?
Question :9 What is the main difference between rename and label?
Question :10 Explain about the CONTENTS procedure?
Question :11 Explain about the WHERE vs. IF?
Question :12 Explain what are the Syntax Errors?
Question :13 Explain(DSD, DLM, OBS, Informat & Format).
Question :14 Explain about the Input methods with suitable example.
Question :15 Explain about the In file options with suitable example.
SAS Macros Interview Questions and Answers::
1. Have you used macros? For what purpose you have used?
Yes I have, I used macros in creating analysis datasets and tables where it is necessary to make a small change through out the program and where it is necessary to use the code again and again.
2. How would you invoke a macro?
After I have defined a macro I can invoke it by adding the percent sign prefix to its name like this: % macro name a semicolon is not required when invoking a macro, though adding one generally does no harm.
3. How can you create a macro variable with in data step?
with CALL SYMPUT
4. How would you identify a macro variable?
with Ampersand (&) sign
5. How would you define the end of a macro?
The end of the macro is defined by %Mend Statement
6. For what purposes have you used SAS macros?
If we want use a program step for executing to execute the same Proc step on multiple data sets. We can accomplish repetitive tasks quickly and efficiently. A macro program can be reused many times. Parameters passed to the macro program customize the results without having to change the code within the macro program. Macros in SAS make a small change in the program and have SAS echo that change thought that program.
7. What is the difference between %LOCAL and %GLOBAL?
% Local is a macro variable defined inside a macro.%Global is a macro variable defined in open code (outside the macro or can use anywhere).
8. How long can a macro variable be? A token?
A component of SAS known as the word scanner breaks the program text into fundamental units called tokens.
· Tokens are passed on demand to the compiler.
· The compiler then requests token until it receives a semicolon.
· Then the compiler performs the syntax check on the statement.
9. If you use a SYMPUT in a DATA step, when and where can you use the macro variable?
The macro variable created by the CALL SYMPUT routine cannot be used in the same datastep in which it got created. Other than that we can use the macro variable at any time..
10. What do you code to create a macro? End one?
We create a macro with %MACRO statement and end a macro with %MEND statemnt.
11. What is the difference between %PUT and SYMBOLGEN?
%PUT is used to display user defined messages on log window after execution of a program where as % SYMBOLGEN is used to print the value of a macro variable resolved, in log window.
12. How do you add a number to a macro variable?
Using %eval function or %sysevalf function if the number is a floating number.
13. Can you execute a macro within a macro? Describe.
Yes, Such macros are called nested macros. They can be obtained by using symget and call symput macros.
14. If you need the value of a variable rather than the variable itself what would you use to load the value to a macro variable?
If we need a value of a macro variable then we must define it in such terms so that we can call them everywhere in the program. Define it as Global. There are different ways of assigning a global variable. Simplest method is %LET.
A, is macro variable. Use following statement to assign the value of a rather than the variable itself
%Let A=xyz; %put x=”&A”;
This will assign “xyz” to x, not the variable xyz to x.
15. Can you execute macro within another macro? If so, how would SAS know where the current macro ended and the new one began?
Yes, I can execute macro within a macro, we call it as nesting of macros, which is allowed.
Every macro’s beginning is identified the keyword %macro and end with %mend.
16. How are parameters passed to a macro?
A macro variable defined in parentheses in a %MACRO statement is a macro parameter. Macro parameters allow you to pass information into a macro.
Here is a simple example:
%macro plot(yvar= ,xvar= );
17. How would you code a macro statement to produce information on the SAS log?
This statement can be coded anywhere?
OPTIONS MPRINT MLOGIC MERROR SYMBOLGEN;
18. How we can call macros with in data step?
We can call the macro with
Proc SQL ,
%LET statement. and macro parameters.
19. Tell me about call symput?
CALL SYMPUT takes a value from a data step and assigns it to a macro variable. I can then use this macro variable in later steps. To assign a value to a single macro variable,
I use CALL SYMPUT with this general form:
CALL SYMPUT (“macro-variable-name”, value);
Where macro-variable-name, enclosed in quotation marks, is the name of a macro variable, and value is the value I want to assign to that macro variable. Value can be the name of a variable whose value SAS will use, or it can be a constant value enclosed quotation marks.
CALL SYMPUT is often used in if-then statements such as this:
If age>=18 then call symput (“status”,”adult”);
else call symput (“status”,”minor”);
These statements create a macro variable named &status and assign to it a value of either adult or minor depending on the variable age.Caution: We cannot create a macro variable with CALL SYMPUT and use it in the same data step because SAS does not assign a value to the macro variable until the data step executes. Data steps executes when SAS encounters a step boundary such as a subsequent data, proc, or run statement.
20. Tell me about % include and % eval?
The %include statement, despite its percent sign, is not a macro statement and is always executed in SAS, though it can be conditionally executed in a macro.It can be used to setting up a macro library. But this is a least approach.
The use of %include does not actually set up a library. The %include statement points to a file and when it executed the indicated file (be it a full program, macro definition, or a statement fragment) is inserted into the calling program at the location of the call.
When using the %include building a macro library, the included file will usually contain one or more macro definitions.%EVAL is a widely used yet frequently misunderstood SAS(r) macro language function due to its seemingly simple form.
However, when its actual argument is a complex macro expression interlaced with special characters, mixed arithmetic and logical operators, or macro quotation functions, its usage and result become elusive and problematic. %IF condition in macro is evaluated by %eval, to reduce it to true or false.
21. Describe the ways in which you can create macro variables?
There are the 5 ways to create macro variables:
Proc SQl into clause
22. Tell me more about the parameters in macro?
Parameters are macro variables whose value you set when you invoke a macro. To add the parameters to a macro, you simply name the macro vars names in parenthesis in the %macro statement.
%MACRO macro-name (parameter-1= , parameter-2= , ……parameter-n = );
23. What is the maximum length of the macro variable?
32 characters long.
24. Automatic variables for macro?
Every time we invoke SAS, the macro processor automatically creates certain macro var. eg: &sysdate &sysday.
25. What system options would you use to help debug a macro?
The SAS System offers users a number of useful system options to help debug macro issues and problems. The results associated with using macro options are automatically displayed on the SAS Log.
Specific options related to macro debugging appear in alphabetical order in the table below:
MEMRPT: Specifies that memory usage statistics be displayed on the SAS Log.
MERROR: SAS will issue warning if we invoke a macro that SAS didn’t find. Presents Warning Messages when there are misspellings or when an undefined macro is called.
SERROR: SAS will issue warning if we use a macro variable that SAS can’t find.
MLOGIC: SAS prints details about the execution of the macros in the log.
MPRINT: Displays SAS statements generated by macro execution are traced on the SAS Log for debugging purposes.
SYMBOLGEN: SAS prints the value of macro variables in log and also displays text from expanding macro variables to the SAS Log.
27. What are SYMGET and SYMPUT?
SYMPUT puts the value from a dataset into a macro variable where as
SYMGET gets the value from the macro variable to the dataset.
28. What are the macros you have used in your programs?
Used macros for various puposes, few of them are..
1) Macros written to determine the list of variables in a dataset:
%macro varlist (dsn);
proc contents data = &dsn out = cont noprint;
proc sql noprint;
select distinct name into:varname1-:varname22 from cont;
%do i =1 %to &sqlobs;
%put &i &&varname&i;
2) Distribution or Missing / Non-Missing Values
%macro missrep (dsn, vars=_numeric_);
proc freq data=&dsn.;
tables &vars. / missing;
format _character_ $missf. _numeric_ missf.;
title1 ‘Distribution or Missing / Non-Missing Values’;
%missrep(study.demog, vars=age gender bdate);
3) Written macros for sorting common variables in various datasets
%macro sortit (datasetname,pid,inverstigator);
PROC SORT DATA = &DATASETNAME;
BY &PID &INVESTIGATOR;
4) Macros written to split the number of observations in a dataset
%macro split (dsnorig, dsnsplit1, dsnsplit2, obs1);
set &dsnorig (obs = &obs1);
set &dsnorig (firstobs = %eval(&obs1 + 1));
29. What is auto call macro and how to create a auto call macro? What is the use of it? How to use it in SAS with macros?
SAS Enables the user to call macros that have been stored as SAS programs.
The auto call macro facility allows users to access the same macro code from multiple SAS programs. Rather than having the same macro code for in each program where the code is required, with an autocall macro, the code is in one location. This permits faster updates and better consistency across all the programs.Macro set-up:The fist step is to set-up a program that contains a macro, desired to be used in multiple programs. Although the program may contain other macros and/or open code, it is advised to include only one macro.
Set MAUTOSOURSE and SASAUTOS:
Before one can use the autocall macro within a SAS program, The MAUTOSOURSE option must be set open and the SASAUTOS option should be assigned. The MAUTOSOURSE option indicates to SAS that the autocall facility is to be activated. The SASAUTOS option tells SAS where to look for the macros.
For ex: sasauto=’g:\busmeas\internal\macro\’;
30. Why and How to Use %PUT Statement:
%Put statement is similar to the PUT statement in data step, What it does is it writes text and values of macro variable after execution to the SAS System LOG. If you want to make sure your macro variable resolves as expected, you can make sure it with %PUT statement.
Unique advantage of %PUT over PUT is …you can use %PUT outside the data step whereas you can’t with PUT.
How to use %PUT:
%put program Name here as &program;
Above %put statement resolves to … %put Program Name here as AE;
What can you do with %PUT:
Numerous options are available for the %PUT statement.
%PUT _all_: It prints all macro variables in the log that are available in all environments (global, local, user and automatic).
%PUT _automatic_: It prints all the SAS defined automatic macro variables in the log. (ex: &sysdate, &systime ,%sysdsn, %syserr etc)
%PUT _global_: It prints macro variables that are created by the user and available in all environments.
%PUT _local_: It prints macro variables that are created by the user and available only in the local environment. (couldn’t be able use those macro variables outside the particular data step)
%PUT _user_: It prints macro variables that are created by the user in each environment.
31) How to know how &&var&i or &&dsn&i resolves?
It is very confusing some times to tell rightaway how &&var&i or &&dsn&i get resolved…
but here is the simple technique you can use to know….
ex: We generally use &&var&i or &&dsn&i these macro variables when we are using a %do loop… to execute same code n number of times.
You have a dataset and it has 5 variables … Patid sex age ethnic race wt ht;
%do i=1 %to &nvars;
So if the nvars value is 7, then the loop creates a macro variable list of
&var1 &var2 &var3 &var4 &var5 &var6 &var7
which further get resolved to
patid sex age ethnic race wt ht
You can always use Macro debugging option SYMBOLGEN to see how each macro variable got resolved….
BASE SAS PROC SQL:
1. What are the three types of join?
A. The three types of join are inner join, left join and right join.The inner join option takes the matching values from both the tables by the ON option. The left join selects all the variables from the first table and joins second table to it. The right join selects all the variables of table b first and join the table a to it.
2. Have you ever used PROC SQL for data summarization?
A. Yes I have used it for summarization at times…For e.g if I have to calculate the max value of BP for patients 101 102 and 103 then I use the max (bpd) function to get the maximum value and use group by statement to group the patients accordingly.
3. Tell me about your SQL experience?
A. I have used the SAS/ACCESS SQL pass thru facility for connection with external databases and importing tables from them and also Microsoft access and excel files.Besides this, lot of times I have used PROC SQL for joining tables.
4. Once you have had the data read into SAS datasets are you more of a data step programmer or a PROC SQL programmer?
A. It depends on what types of analysis datasets are required for creating tables but I am more of a data step programmer as it gives me more flexibility.For e.g creating a change from baseline data set for blood pressure sometimes I have to retain certain values …use arrays ….or use the first. -and last. variables.
5. What types of programming tasks do you use PROC SQL for versus the data step?
A. Proc SQL is very convenient for performing table joins compared to a data step merge as it does not require the key columns to be sorted prior to join. A data step is more suitable for sequential observation-by-observation processing.PROC SQL can save a great deal of time if u want to filter the variables while selecting or u can modify them …apply format….creating new variables , macrovariables…as well as subsetting the data.PROC SQL offers great flexibility for joining tables.
6. Have u ever used PROC SQL to read in a raw data file?
A. No. I don’t think it can be used.
7. How do you merge data in Proc SQL?
The three types of join are inner join, left join and right join. The inner join option takes the matching values from both the tables by the ON option. The left join selects all the variables from the first table and joins second table to it. The right join selects all the variables of table b first and join the table a to it.
CREATE TABLE BOTH AS
A.DATE FORMAT=DATE7. AS DATE,
FROM VITALS A INNER JOIN DOSING B
ON (A.PATIENT = B.PATIENT)
AND(A.DATE = B.DATE)
ORDER BY PATIENT, DATE;
8. What are the statements in Proc SQl?
Select, From, Where, Group By, Having, Order.
CREATE TABLE HIGHBPP2 AS
COUNT (PATIENT) AS N,
MAX(BPD) AS BPDHIGH
WHERE PATIENT IN (101 102 103)
GROUP BY PATIENT
HAVING BPD = CALCULATED BPDHIGH
ORDER BY CALCULATED BPDHIGH;
9. Why and when do you use Proc SQl?
Proc SQL is very convenient for performing table joins compared to a data step merge as it does not require the key columns to be sorted prior to join. A data step is more suitable for sequential observation-by-observation processing.
PROC SQL can save a great deal of time if u want to filter the variables while selecting or we can modify them, apply format and creating new variables, macrovariables…as well as subsetting the data. PROC SQL offers great flexibility for joining tables.
Infosys has set up a $2 million fund along with Princeton University, to enable up to two scholars to pursue research at the school’s Institute of Advanced Study (IAS), thereby underlining Vishal Sikka’s strategy of deepening partnerships with academic institutes globally.
This comes almost a month after Infosys signed an agreement with Sikka’s alma mater, Stanford, to jointly make course curriculum in data science and analytics and help Infosys and the college work on real-world problem areas.
“At Infosys, we believe that people when amplified by technology, knowledge, imagination and an enriching ecosystem can achieve incredible things,” said Vishal Sikka, Infosys CEO and MD. “By mentoring visiting scholars in both academic and practical terms, IAS has created yet another avenue to produce advances in knowledge that can change the way we work.”
Wipro too announced last month that it will partner with Vellore Institute of Technology to train its graduates hired this year in analytics space, as it looks to overcome the shortage of data scientists in the industry.